streets winding through interconnected public spaces and green areas—a true community. But because the Stuttgart municipality wanted to sell or rent the houses after the show closed, in the event a more conventional layout was chosen, with mostly single-family, freestanding units.

After much indecision and repeated revision of lists of participants, sixteen architects from five European countries were invited to build in the Weissenhofsiedlung. The houses were designed by Mies van der Rohe himself; the other Germans: Walter Gropius, Bruno Taut, Hans Poelzig, Richard Decker, Adolf Schneck, Adolph Rading, Hans Scharoun, Max Taut, and Ludwig Hilberseimer; Behrens; the Hollanders J. J. P. Oud and Mart Stam, both of whom designed row houses; the Austrian Josef Frank; the Belgian Victor Bourgeois; and the Swiss Le Corbusier. The dwellings were archetypes of the Modern Movement, what may well be the most significant group of buildings of twentieth-century architecture, based on the exploitation of the structural possibilities of new technologies. The homogeneous nature of the ensemble was certainly recognized beyond Europe, and in 1932 the New York Museum of Modern Art mounted an exhibition to show what became known as the International Style. The curators Henry-Russell Hitchcock and Philip Johnson identified the new “style” by a number of characteristics: cubic volumes, open plans, a skeleton structure that allowed the exteriors to be treated as skins rather than bearers of loads (often white painted concrete or stucco), and the decorative use of color and expressed structural detail rather than applied ornament.

The Weissenhofsiedlung was brushed aside by reactionary architects and critics, whose political preferences are betrayed by one contemporary epithet: “collective anthills of vicious Central African termites.” It was only to be expected that the Nazi Party, coming to power in 1933, would also disapprove of the houses on political and artistic grounds, and five years later the “shameful blot on the face of Stuttgart” was publicly condemned as “degenerate art.” Plans to have the entire suburb demolished and replaced by military buildings never eventuated. However, most of the Weissenhofsiedlung houses subsequently suffered war damage; some were completely destroyed. After World War II the surviving buildings were neglected, unsympathetic changes were made, and infill construction took little account of the architectural context provided by the surviving icons of Modernism. The Society of Friends of the Weissenhofsiedlung was founded in 1977, and in 1981 the Federal Republic of Germany’s minister for housing, regional, and urban planning authorized the “rehabilitation and restoration of the Weissenhofsiedlung.” In 1987 the surviving buildings, designed by Behrens, Bourgeois, Frank, Le Corbusier, Mies van der Rohe, Oud, Scharoun, Schneck, and Stam, were restored.

See also

Villa Savoye

Further reading

Irace, Fulvio. 1984. “Stuttgart: Weissenhof Case Study.” Domus (April): 2–13.

Joedicke, Jürgen. 1989. The Weissenhofsiedlung. Stuttgart; Krämer.

Kirsch, Karin. 1994. The Weissenhofsiedlung. Experimental Housing Built for the Deutscher Werkbund, Stuttgart 1927. Cologne: Taschen.

World Trade Center Towers

New York City

On the morning of 11 September 2001, terrorists targeted the World Trade Center in Manhattan, first crashing a hijacked commercial jetliner into the upper levels of One World Trade Center, one of its twin 110-story iconic skyscrapers. A few minutes later a second hijacked aircraft sliced through the middle levels of Two World Trade Center, the other tower. (A third airliner crashed into the Pentagon outside Washington, D.C., while a fourth crash landed in a field in Pennsylvania, its intended target undetermined.) The effects were predictably devastating: both buildings burned fiercely before totally collapsing in clouds of dust and rubble that darkened the sky above Manhattan. A third building in the complex, a forty-seven-story office block (Seven World Trade Center), damaged by flying debris, followed soon after.

In an earlier raid in February 1993 Arab terrorists exploded a 1,200-pound (550-kilogram) truck