were change, adaptability, flexibility, metamorphosis, impermanence, and ephemerality. Accordingly, they designed a living environment that incorporated all kinds of gadgetry. They proposed an inflatable bodysuit containing food, radio, and television, and the “suitaloon,” a house carried on the back. These eccentric ideas extended from the individual to the communal: Chalk’s Capsule Homes (1964) were projected alongside Cook’s Plug-in City (1964–1966), in which self-contained living units could be temporarily fitted into towering structural frames, and Herron’s nomadic Walking City; in which skyscrapers could move on giant telescoping legs. The group published its Instant City in 1968.

It has been suggested that in the 1960s Archigram was to modern architecture what the Beatles were to modern music. But in the early 1970s they more or less dispersed, Greene and Herron (for a while) becoming teachers in the United States. Crompton, Cook, and Herron formed Archigram Architects (1970–1974). Herron and Cook then established independent practices in various partnerships. Crompton maintained links with the Architectural Association, and Greene turned to writing poetry and practicing architecture. Webb moved permanently to the United States and after 1975 taught at Cornell and Columbia Universities in New York. Chalk continued writing and teaching in the United States and England, mostly at the Architectural Association, until he died in 1987.

See also

Industrialized building; Pompidou Center (Beaubourg)

Further reading

Archigram. (1961–1974). 10 issues (numbers 1-91/2). London: Archigram.

Cook, Peter, ed. 1972. Archigram. London: Studio Vista.

Crompton, Dennis ed. 1994. A Guide to Archigram, 1961–1974. London: Architectural Press.


Ephesus, Turkey

The Artemiseion, a huge Ionic temple dedicated to the goddess Artemis, stood in the city of Ephesus on the Aegean coast of what was then Asia, near the modern town of Selcuk, about 30 miles (50 kilometers) south of Izmir, Turkey. The splendid building was acclaimed as one of the seven wonders of the world, as attested by Antipater of Sidon: “When I saw the sacred house of Artemis 1/4 the [other wonders] were placed in the shade, for the Sun himself has never looked upon its equal outside Olympus.” Among several attempts to identify the architectural and sculptural wonders of the ancient world, the seven best known are those listed by Antipater in the second century b.c. and confirmed soon after by one Philo of Byzantium.


Artemiseion in Ephesus, Turkey; Demetrios and Paeonios, architects, 356 b.c.–ca. 240 b.c. Artist’s reconstruction.

Artemis was the Greek moon goddess, daughter of Zeus and Leto. Whatever form she was given, it was always linked with wild nature. On the Greek mainland she was usually portrayed as a beautiful young virgin, a goddess in human form. In Ephesus and the other Ionic colonies of Asia, where ancient ideas of the Earth Mother and associated fertility cults persisted, she was linked with Cybele, the mother goddess of Anatolia, and her appearance was dramatically different, even grotesque. The original cult statue has long since disappeared, but copies survive. That is hardly surprising, because the trade in them flourished in Ephesus at least until the first century a.d. They portray a standing figure, her arms outstretched like those of the earlier décolleté figurines common in Minoan Crete. Artemis was fully dressed except for her many breasts, symbolizing her fertility (although some recent scholars have suggested that the bulbous forms are bulls’ scrotums). The lower part of her body was covered with a tight-fitting skirt, decorated with plant motifs and carved in relief with griffins and sphinxes. She wore a head scarf decorated